1 Tojashura

Positional Language Homework Year 1999


Both predator defense and feeding ecology models have been proposed to explain the relatively slow climbing locomotion of the Lorisinae. During a study of the socioecology of the Mysore slender loris (Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus) in Tamil Nadu, India, six categories of behavior and eleven different postures were recorded to estimate a general activity budget for the slender loris, and are examined here particularly in relation to slow climbing locomotor strategies. Reactions to potential predators are also described. The main study population was composed of 15 animals. Activity budgets were compiled in three ways: all instantaneous point samples collected over 1,173 h pooled (n = 13,717), the means of individual lorises (n = 15) and behavior at the moment of first contact (n = 357). No significant difference was found between these three data sets. Approximately 45% of the activity budget was spent in inactive behaviors including sitting vigilant, resting and sleeping. Foraging and traveling comprised nearly half the activity budget, with the rest of the time spent grooming. The most common postures assumed by lorises were sitting and quadrupedal walking. Individual lorises were relatively gregarious and spent up to half their activity budget with other animals. Unlike pottos and angwantibos, lorises did not freeze, head butt or drop from branches in reaction to potential predators, but either ignored them, fled or made loud calls. Cryptic and slow climbing locomotion were used before traveling on open ground between discontinuous substrates, thereby supporting hypotheses relating to predator pressure, and also before capturing fast moving insect prey, supporting hypotheses relating to diet. It is proposed that a divergence in foraging strategies between bushbabies and lorisines may be the best adaptive explanation for their behavioral and morphological differences, including predator defense mechanisms.

© 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel


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Article / Publication Details

Published online: November 15, 2001
Issue release date: November 2001

Number of Print Pages: 14
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 0015-5713 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9980 (Online)

For additional information: https://www.karger.com/FPR

First-Page Preview

This list consists of visual resources, activities and games designed to support the new curriculum programme of study in Years 1 and 2. Containing tips on using the resources and suggestions for further use it covers:

Year 1: recognise and name common 2D and 3D shapes and describe position, directions and movements, including half, quarter and three-quarter turns.

Year 2: identify and describe the properties of 2D shapes, including the number of sides and symmetry in a vertical line, identify and describe the properties of 3D shapes, including the number of edges, vertices and faces, identify 2-D shapes on surface of 3-D shapes and compare and sort common 2-D and 2-D shapes and everyday objects.

Order and arrange combinations of mathematical objects in patterns and use mathematical vocabulary to describe position, direction and movement.

Visit the primary mathematics webpage to access all lists.

Links and Resources

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Listen to a song which shows examples of spheres, cylinders, cubes and cones. This could be used at the start of a lesson on 3D shapes before asking children to find examples of the shapes from a teacher selection and then within the classroom. Children could make up their own songs for learning about other 3D shapes.


Outdoor learning always motivates children so the shape hunt idea is perfect for Year 1 learning to recognise shapes in the outdoor environment. A shape sorting activity helps assess the children's learning of shapes and their properties.

Making shapes with elastic bands is a great way of identifying and describing 2-D shapes and can be used as a paired activity with children challenging each other to create different shapes.

The first 6 minutes of this video show how children are guided into constructing 3D shapes from 2D diagrams using drinking straws and modelling dough. This is a great way of learning about the properties of 3D shapes, including faces, edges and vertices and also a great way of assessing this learning.In the plenary, children play a game where they listen to the properties of a shape being described including the shape of the faces. Though done with a Year 3 class this idea could be adapted for Year 2.



Build a tower with 3D shapes, make monsters or play a card game matching shapes to their pictures. All activities from Maths Chest scheme of work are designed to help children recognise and name 2D and 3D shapes.In topic 26 children use shapes to create pictures and patterns and move shapes around in relation to each other.  The activity on page 4 provides children with the opportunity to continue patterns using sheet 2.26 in the repromasters, which may be found in the Introduction and Student Materials.


The game What's that? allows children to practise matching names to shapes. 

The worksheet Shapes practises shape recognition and colours by asking children to colour in different shapes in different colours within a pattern.

Squares and circles is a worksheet which could be used to support children in recognising and drawing squares and circles. It could be extended to drawing a person from triangles.


An NRICH investigation where children discover the different shapes of triangles for themselves using coloured rods or sticks. This could be run as a whole class investigation, in small groups with adult support or as part of an enrichment task depending on when taught and the overall readiness of the class. It requires coloured construction rods but contains a printable sheet showing the rods which may be used instead.


Pages 26 and 27 on the pdf provide an activity idea and worksheet for describing pattern and position of bears with regard to colour and size. Children could work on creating their own patterns and asking others to describe them either in pairs or small groups. 


Sometimes you may want a different way of practising an area of mathematics or even a worksheet, game or puzzle. This book provides 40 worksheets which may be used in KS1 to practise many areas of mathematics, or to support children in KS2.

Drawing shape characters is a fun way of recognising and naming 2-D shapes It can be found on sheet 33 page 76.

In Year 2 children are asked to describe position, direction and movement.

Practise giving and following directions on sheet 32, page 73 where children learn about moving along a straight line and turning through a right angle.

Play 'Twiddles' as a way of practising turns. The activity could be adapted to include half and three quarter turns and to include turning through right angles in a clockwise or anticlockwise direction. This activity is on Sheet 34, page 77 on pdf.

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