Positional Language Homework Year 1999
Both predator defense and feeding ecology models have been proposed to explain the relatively slow climbing locomotion of the Lorisinae. During a study of the socioecology of the Mysore slender loris (Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus) in Tamil Nadu, India, six categories of behavior and eleven different postures were recorded to estimate a general activity budget for the slender loris, and are examined here particularly in relation to slow climbing locomotor strategies. Reactions to potential predators are also described. The main study population was composed of 15 animals. Activity budgets were compiled in three ways: all instantaneous point samples collected over 1,173 h pooled (n = 13,717), the means of individual lorises (n = 15) and behavior at the moment of first contact (n = 357). No significant difference was found between these three data sets. Approximately 45% of the activity budget was spent in inactive behaviors including sitting vigilant, resting and sleeping. Foraging and traveling comprised nearly half the activity budget, with the rest of the time spent grooming. The most common postures assumed by lorises were sitting and quadrupedal walking. Individual lorises were relatively gregarious and spent up to half their activity budget with other animals. Unlike pottos and angwantibos, lorises did not freeze, head butt or drop from branches in reaction to potential predators, but either ignored them, fled or made loud calls. Cryptic and slow climbing locomotion were used before traveling on open ground between discontinuous substrates, thereby supporting hypotheses relating to predator pressure, and also before capturing fast moving insect prey, supporting hypotheses relating to diet. It is proposed that a divergence in foraging strategies between bushbabies and lorisines may be the best adaptive explanation for their behavioral and morphological differences, including predator defense mechanisms.
© 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Osman Hill WCO: A monograph on the genus Loris. Ceylon J Sci (B) 1993;XVIII:89–129.
- Jenkins PD: Catalogue of primates in the British Museum (Natural History) Part IV: Suborder Strepsirrhini. British Museum (Natural History), London 1987.
- Schulze H, Meier B: The subspecies of Loris tardigradus and their conservation status; in Alterman L, Doyle G, Izard MK (eds): Creatures of the Dark: The Nocturnal Prosimians. New York, Plenum Publishing, 1995, pp 193–210.
- Nekaris KAI: A preliminary survey of the slender loris Loris tardigradus in South India. Am J Phys Anthropol Suppl 1997;24:176–177.
- Singh M, Lindburg DG, Udhayan A, Kumar MA, Kumara HN: Status survey of the slender loris in Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India. Oryx 1999;33:31–37.
- Singh M, Kumar MA, Kumara HN, Mohnot SM: Distribution and conservation of slender lorises in Southern Andhra Pradesh, South India. Int J Primatol 2000;21:721–730.
- Oates J: The niche of the potto. Int J Primatol 1984;5:51–61.
- Sussman RW: Primate Ecology and Social Structure, vol I: Lorises, Lemurs and Tarsiers. Needham Heights, Pearson Custom Publishing, 1999.
- Rasmussen DT, Nekaris KAI: Evolutionary history of the lorisiform primates. Folia Primatol 1998;69(suppl 1):250–285.
- Charles-Dominique P: Ecology and Behaviour of Nocturnal Primates. London, Duckworth, 1977.
- Bearder SK: Physical and social diversity among nocturnal primates: A new view based on long-term research. Primates 1999;40:267–282.
- Charles-Dominique P: Vie sociale de Perodicticus potto (Primates, Lorisides). Etude de terrain en forêt équatorial de l’ouest africain au Gabon. Mammalia 1974;38:355–379.
- Walker AC: The locomotion of the lorises, with special reference to the potto. E Afr Wildlife J 1969;7:1–5.
- Glassman DM, Wells JP: Positional and activity behavior in a captive slow loris: A quantitative assessment. Am J Primatol 1984;7:121–132.
- Nekaris KAI: Diet of the slender loris (Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus) in Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, India. Am J Phys Anthropol Suppl 1999;28:209.
- Nekaris KAI: The Socioecology of the Mysore Slender Loris (Loris tardigradus lydekkerianus) in Dindigul Dt, Tamil Nadu, South India. PhD Thesis, Washington University, St. Louis, 2000.
- Bearder SK, Nekaris KAI, Buzzell CA: Are some nocturnal primates afraid of the dark?; in Miller L (ed): Eat or Be Eaten: Predator Sensitive Foraging, in press. Cambridge University Press.
- Nekaris KAI: The spacing system of the slender loris and its implications for social organization. Am J Phys Anthropol 2000;51:77.
- Charles-Dominique P, Bearder SK: Field studies of lorisid behaviour: Methodological aspects; in Doyle GA, Martin RD (eds): The Study of Prosimian Behaviour. New York, Academic Press, 1979, pp 567–629.
- Bearder SK, Martin RD: The social organization of a nocturnal primate revealed by radio tracking; in Amlaner CR Jr, Macdonald DW (eds): A Handbook on Biotelemetry and Radio Tracking. Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1980, pp 663–648.
- Crompton RH: Foraging, habitat structure, and locomotion in two species of Galago; in Rodman PS, Cant JGH (eds): Adaptations for Foraging in Non-Human Primates. New York, Columbia University Press, 1984, pp 73–111.
- Gursky SL: Group size and composition in the spectral tarsier, Tarsius spectrum: Implications for social organization. Trop Biodiv 1995;3:57–62.
- Fietz J: Mating system of Microcebus murinus. Am J Primatol 1999;48:127–133.
- Mueller AE: Aspects of social life in the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius): Inferences from body weights and trapping data. Am J Primatol 1999;49:265–280.
- Schulze H, Meier B: Behaviour of captive Loris tardigradus nordicus: A qualitative description including some information about morphological bases of behaviour; in Alterman L, Doyle D, Izard MK (eds): Creatures of the Dark: The Nocturnal Prosimians. New York, Plenum Publishing, 1995, pp 221–250.
- Altman J: Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods. Behaviour 1974;49:227–265.
- Rasmussen DT: Primate origins: Lessons from a neotropical marsupial. Am J Primatol 1990;22:263–277.
- Thomas DH: Refiguring Anthropology: First Principles of Probability and Statistics. Chicago, Waveland Press, 1986.
- Osman Hill WC: Primates. Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy. I. Strepsirrhini. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 1953.
- Seth PK: Preliminary observations on slender lorises. Anthropologist 1963;7:45–51.
- Rasmussen DT: Life History and Behavior of Slow Lorises and Slender Lorises. PhD Thesis, Duke University, Durham, 1986.
- Narayan Rao CR: Observations on the habits of the slow loris Loris lydekkerianus. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 1927;32:206–208.
- Subramonian S: Some observations on the habits of the slender loris (Loris tardigradus). J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 1957;54:387–398.
- Sellers W: A biomechanical investigation into the absence of leaping in the locomotor repertoire of the slender loris (Loris tardigradus). Folia Primatol 1996;67:1–14.
- Mohnot SM: On the primate resources of India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 1978;75:961–969.
- Glinn B: The slow loris. Life Oct 8, 1951;31:179–180.
- Barret E: The Ecology of Some Nocturnal, Arboreal Mammals in the Rainforests of Peninsular Malaysia. PhD dissertation, Cambridge University, 1984.
- Dykyj D: Locomotion of the slow loris in a designed substrate context. Am J Phys Anthropol 1980;52:577–586.
- Tenaza R, Fitch H: The slow loris. Zoonooz 1984;57:10–12.
- Petter JJ, Hladik CM: Observations sur le domaine vital et la densité de population de Loris tardigradus dans les forêts de Ceylon. Mammalia 1970;34:394–409.
- Goodman SM, O’Connor S, Langrand O: A review of predation on lemurs: Implications for the evolution of social behavior in small nocturnal primates; in Kappeler PM, Ganzhorn JU (eds): Lemur Social Systems and Their Ecological Basis. New York, Plenum Press, 1993, pp 51–56.
- Mueller EF: Energy metabolism, thermoregulation and water budget in the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Comp Biochem Physiol 1979;64A:109–119.
- Mueller EF, Nieschalk U, Meier B: Thermoregulation in the slender loris (Loris tardigradus). Folia Primatol 1985;44:216–226.
Article / Publication Details
Published online: November 15, 2001
Issue release date: November 2001
Number of Print Pages: 14
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 4
ISSN: 0015-5713 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9980 (Online)
For additional information: https://www.karger.com/FPR
This list consists of visual resources, activities and games designed to support the new curriculum programme of study in Years 1 and 2. Containing tips on using the resources and suggestions for further use it covers:
Year 1: recognise and name common 2D and 3D shapes and describe position, directions and movements, including half, quarter and three-quarter turns.
Year 2: identify and describe the properties of 2D shapes, including the number of sides and symmetry in a vertical line, identify and describe the properties of 3D shapes, including the number of edges, vertices and faces, identify 2-D shapes on surface of 3-D shapes and compare and sort common 2-D and 2-D shapes and everyday objects.
Order and arrange combinations of mathematical objects in patterns and use mathematical vocabulary to describe position, direction and movement.
Visit the primary mathematics webpage to access all lists.
Links and Resources
Report inappropriate content
Listen to a song which shows examples of spheres, cylinders, cubes and cones. This could be used at the start of a lesson on 3D shapes before asking children to find examples of the shapes from a teacher selection and then within the classroom. Children could make up their own songs for learning about other 3D shapes.
Outdoor learning always motivates children so the shape hunt idea is perfect for Year 1 learning to recognise shapes in the outdoor environment. A shape sorting activity helps assess the children's learning of shapes and their properties.
Making shapes with elastic bands is a great way of identifying and describing 2-D shapes and can be used as a paired activity with children challenging each other to create different shapes.
The first 6 minutes of this video show how children are guided into constructing 3D shapes from 2D diagrams using drinking straws and modelling dough. This is a great way of learning about the properties of 3D shapes, including faces, edges and vertices and also a great way of assessing this learning.In the plenary, children play a game where they listen to the properties of a shape being described including the shape of the faces. Though done with a Year 3 class this idea could be adapted for Year 2.
Build a tower with 3D shapes, make monsters or play a card game matching shapes to their pictures. All activities from Maths Chest scheme of work are designed to help children recognise and name 2D and 3D shapes.In topic 26 children use shapes to create pictures and patterns and move shapes around in relation to each other. The activity on page 4 provides children with the opportunity to continue patterns using sheet 2.26 in the repromasters, which may be found in the Introduction and Student Materials.
The game What's that? allows children to practise matching names to shapes.
The worksheet Shapes practises shape recognition and colours by asking children to colour in different shapes in different colours within a pattern.
Squares and circles is a worksheet which could be used to support children in recognising and drawing squares and circles. It could be extended to drawing a person from triangles.
An NRICH investigation where children discover the different shapes of triangles for themselves using coloured rods or sticks. This could be run as a whole class investigation, in small groups with adult support or as part of an enrichment task depending on when taught and the overall readiness of the class. It requires coloured construction rods but contains a printable sheet showing the rods which may be used instead.
Pages 26 and 27 on the pdf provide an activity idea and worksheet for describing pattern and position of bears with regard to colour and size. Children could work on creating their own patterns and asking others to describe them either in pairs or small groups.
Sometimes you may want a different way of practising an area of mathematics or even a worksheet, game or puzzle. This book provides 40 worksheets which may be used in KS1 to practise many areas of mathematics, or to support children in KS2.
Drawing shape characters is a fun way of recognising and naming 2-D shapes It can be found on sheet 33 page 76.
In Year 2 children are asked to describe position, direction and movement.
Practise giving and following directions on sheet 32, page 73 where children learn about moving along a straight line and turning through a right angle.
Play 'Twiddles' as a way of practising turns. The activity could be adapted to include half and three quarter turns and to include turning through right angles in a clockwise or anticlockwise direction. This activity is on Sheet 34, page 77 on pdf.