Ibid Essay Reference

Consecutive references:

When you are referencing the same source in two (or more) footnotes the second and subsequent references should be entered as "Ibid." and the page number for the relevant footnote.  Use "Ibid." without any page number if the page is the same as the previous reference.

Example footnotes:

1. Stephen Marshall, Cities, Design and Evolution (Abingdon, U.K.: Routledge, 2009), 69.

2. Ibid., 72.


Nonconsecutive references:

When referring to a previously cited work, but with other references intervening, use a shortened reference. This is only the author's/editor's last name and a shortened form of the title.  Titles of four or less words are not shortened. 

Example footnotes:

1. Stephen Marshall, Cities, Design and Evolution (Abingdon, U.K.: Routledge, 2009), 69.

2. Deidre Brown, Maori Architecture: From Fale to Wharenui and Beyond (Auckland, N.Z.: Raupo, 2009), 56.

3. Marshall, Cities, Design, 72.

Several books by the same author in the bibliography                                               
Where your bibliography contains two or more works by the same author entries are arranged alphabetically by title (leading definite/indefinite articles being ignored) under the author's name.  The author's name is replaced in the second and subsequent entries by six hyphens:

Jencks, Charles and Edwin Heathcote. The Architecture of Hope: Maggie's Cancer Caring Centres. London: Frances Lincoln, 2010.

------. Can Architecture Affect Your Health? Arnhem, The Netherlands: Sikkens Foundation and ArtEZ Press, 2012.

------. The Scottish Parliament. London: Scala Publishers, 2005.

Continued reference to the same work

Once you have indicated which edition of a primary text you are using, you may supply subsequent page references, in brackets following the quotation, in the body of the assignment.

Once a secondary source has been fully detailed in a footnote or an endnote, there is no need to repeat the entire note in a subsequent reference. Shorten it. In the case of a book, use the author's last name and the book's title, which may itself be shortened, followed by the relevant page number.

13 Levine, The Battle of the Books, 143 or 10 Levine, Battle, 143.

Serial articles: Include the author's name, the title of the article, which may be shortened, followed by the relevant page number.

14 Ray, "Reading Women", 424.

If you want to refer to the same work and page number in the next note, use the Latin Ibid.

15 Ibid.

For the same work with a different page number:

16 Ibid., 480.

It is better to avoid older conventions such as "loc cit." and "op cit." in favour of those given above.


*For more examples, refer to pp. 604-605 of The Chicago Style Manual, 15th Ed., 2003.

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