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Malleable Definition Example Essay

While transactions are signed, the signature does not currently cover all the data in a transaction that is hashed to create the transaction hash. Thus, while uncommon, it is possible for a node on the network to change a transaction you send in such a way that the hash is invalidated. Note that this just changes the hash; the output of the transaction remains the same and the bitcoins will go to their intended recipient. However this does mean that, for instance, it is not safe to accept a chain of unconfirmed transactions under any circumstance because the later transactions will depend on the hashes of the previous transactions, and those hashes can be changed until they are confirmed in a block (and potentially even after a confirmation if the block chain is reorganized). In addition, clients must always actively scan for transactions to them; assuming a txout exists because the client created it previously is unsafe.

Signature Malleability

The first form of malleability is in the signatures themselves. Each signature has exactly one DER-encoded ASN.1 octet representation, but OpenSSL does not enforce this, and as long as a signature isn't horribly malformed, it will be accepted.[1] In addition for every ECDSA signature (r,s), the signature (r, -s (mod N)) is a valid signature of the same message.[2]

As of block 363724[3], the BIP66 soft fork has made it mandatory for all new transactions in the block chain to strictly follow the DER-encoded ASN.1 standard. Further efforts are still under way to close other possible malleability within DER signatures.

Signatures can still be changed by anyone who has access to the corresponding private keys.

scriptSig Malleability

The signature algorithm used in Bitcoin does not sign any of the scriptSig to create the signature. While signing the whole scriptSig would be impossible - the signature would be signing itself - this does mean that additional data can be added such that it will be pushed on the stack prior to the required signatures and public keys. Similarly OP_DROP can be added to leave the stack exactly as before prior to scriptPubKey execution.

Preventing scriptSig malleability is being considered as well. Currently transactions with anything other than data push operations in their scriptSig are considered non-standard and are not relayed, and eventually this rule may extend to enforcing that the stack have exactly one item after execution. However doing that may interfere with later extensions to Bitcoin.

References

  1. ↑https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=8392.msg122410#msg122410
  2. ↑https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=8392.msg1245898#msg1245898
  3. ↑When did BIP66 switch from activation to enforcement?, answer by StephenM347, 6 July 2015, Bitcoin.StackExchange
  • WordNet 3.6

    • adjmalleablecapable of being shaped or bent or drawn out"ductile copper","malleable metals such as gold","they soaked the leather to made it pliable","pliant molten glass","made of highly tensile steel alloy"
    • adjmalleableeasily influenced
    • ***

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary

    • MalleableCapable of being extended or shaped by beating with a hammer, or by the pressure of rollers; -- applied to metals.
    • MalleableCapable of being influenced to behave as desired; tractable; -- used mostly of children.
    • ***

Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

    • malleableCapable of being shaped or extended by beating or rolling; capable of extension by hammering; reducible to a laminated form by beating, as gold, which may be beaten into leaves (gold-foil) of extreme thinness; hence, capable of being shaped by outside influence; yielding. See foil.
    • ***

Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary

    • adjMalleablethat may be malleated or beaten out by hammering
    • ***

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary

F. malléable, fr. LL. malleare, to hammer. See Malleate

Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary

L. malleus, a hammer.

In literature:

He had been thrice my savior, and his heart was soft and malleable on the side of friendship.

"The Master of Appleby" by Francis Lynde

He was malleable material in her fingers.

"Suzanna Stirs the Fire" by Emily Calvin Blake

But people without names must be malleable as wax is.

"The Way of Ambition" by Robert Hichens

It is malleable and can be rolled out into sheets.

"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Part 4" by Various

To find out what is lovable in them and not to try to discover what is malleable in them is the secret.

"Joyous Gard" by Arthur Christopher Benson

Everything was getting too near the end to be malleable any more.

"The Coast of Chance" by Esther Chamberlain

It was a sort of malleable glass.

"The Story of Glass" by Sara Ware Bassett

When once rolled into sheets it retains its softness and malleability at ordinary temperatures.

"An Elementary Study of Chemistry" by William McPherson

Who would make the devil himself malleable; then, work, hammer and wire-draw him!

"Under the Rose" by Frederic Stewart Isham

Strong malleable iron bars for supporting the framings of the marine steam-engine.

"The Sailor's Word-Book" by William Henry Smyth

Watt was not made of malleable stuff, and, besides, he was tied to his mission.

"James Watt" by Andrew Carnegie

Much imposition has been practiced with it, and it is not made as malleable as it should and can be.

"Tin Foil and Its Combinations for Filling Teeth" by Henry L. Ambler

All that could be done was to keep still, in the hope that he would become more malleable.

"Salem Witchcraft and Cotton Mather" by Charles W. Upham

Found metal not so malleable quite.

"The Woman Who Dared" by Epes Sargent

The chemical kind of annealing is specifically that employed in the manufacture of malleable cast iron.

"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 2" by Various

Three hundred of these malleable castings are machined in nine hours.

"Turning and Boring" by Franklin D. Jones

For quickening the process of converting cast iron into malleable iron.

"The Scientific Basis of National Progress" by George Gore

Later, a process was discovered whereby tungsten could be made malleable.

"The New Gresham Encyclopedia" by Various

It was of malleable iron, and of the form shown in the accompanying figure.

"A History of the Growth of the Steam-Engine" by Robert H. Thurston

They are both extremely malleable and very readily worked.

"Arts and Crafts Essays" by Various

***

In news:

What does it say about America that the nation's favorite cheese -- its namesake cheese -- has no earthy, sexy aroma, offers very little flavor and has the texture of malleable plastic.

pitch.com

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes is one of the English-speaking worlds most memorable characters and, apparently, one of its more malleable.

oregonlive.com

PMC-SIERRA BUYS THE REST OF MALLEABLE FOR $229 MILLION.

nytimes.com

It's two pieces of malleable black pipe (not cast iron), a nipple and a reducing coupler, wrapped with a bicycle inner tube for a comfortable grip.

americanwoodworker.com

Twist malleable aluminum wire into graceful monograms .

marthastewart.com

In the eating, Starling 's French toast is faintly crispy on the edges and so softly malleable wherever the custard has permeated that you can scoop it up with a spoon.

ocweekly.com

Most of the topiaries are California privet, whose malleable stems grow quickly, and are trimmed weekly.

gardendesign.com

We think our political stance is the product of reason, but we're surprisingly malleable.

psychologytoday.com

Viscoelastic materials perform important functions in architecture and product design, particularly when flexibility and malleability is desired, as in building expansion joints.

architectmagazine.com

Republican presidential hopeful Mitt Romney has a reputation for holding positions that are politically malleable, from abortion to gun rights.

usnews.com

I've learned to remain malleable.

onlineathens.com

The palette is muted but malleable.

washingtonpost.com

The malleability and meanings of its images.

pbs.org

Plastic, that omnipresent malleable material we associate with disposable goods, Hollywood personalities, and instant-gratification charge accounts.

dwell.com

Lawmakers appear more malleable to resolving fiscal split.

post-gazette.com

***

In science:

Non-malleable extractors and symmetric key cryptography from weak secrets.

On the Problem of Local Randomness in Privacy Amplification with an Active Adversary

Villar make a conjecture about the malleability of an RSA modulus.

Small primitive roots and malleability of RSA moduli

In particular, the paper shows how subtle the notion of malleability is.

Small primitive roots and malleability of RSA moduli

Moreover, assuming an extra hypothesis, which they call “non-malleability” of the key generator, they are able to extend the result from key preserving black box reductions to the case of arbitrary black box reductions.

Small primitive roots and malleability of RSA moduli

In fact, they conjecture that most instance generators are non-malleable, but no arguments are given to support this belief.

Small primitive roots and malleability of RSA moduli

Actually, the notion of non-malleability captures a very basic fact in arithmetic: intuitively, one tends to believe that the problem of factoring a given number n (an RSA modulus) is not made easier if we know how to factor other numbers n′ relatively prime to n.

Small primitive roots and malleability of RSA moduli

Indeed, the result contained in this note goes against the non-malleability intuition, thus showing how subtle this notion is.

Small primitive roots and malleability of RSA moduli

In other words, we show that factoring is, in this generality, a malleable problem.

Small primitive roots and malleability of RSA moduli

Let us stress that this might be compatible with the conjecture of mentioned above because imposing extra conditions on the numbers n′ may result in transforming the problem in a non-malleable one.

Small primitive roots and malleability of RSA moduli

In fact, it is our belief that malleability is a notion that depends strongly of these kind of extra conditions, and hence requires further research.

Small primitive roots and malleability of RSA moduli

Key words and phrases. von Neumann algebras, malleable actions, property T.

A note on rigidity for crossed product von Neumann algebras

The existence of rigidity can then be contrasted against natural malleable deformations from the Bernoulli shift in order to locate the “twisted” algebra inside of the group-measure space construction.

On cocycle superrigidity for Gaussian actions

The existence of such s-malleable deformations (introduced by Popa in [34, 35]) actually occurs in a broader setting than the (generalized) Bernoulli shifts with diffuse core, but it was Furman who first noticed that the even larger class of Gaussian actions are also s-malleable.

On cocycle superrigidity for Gaussian actions

On the other hand, since θt is a s-malleable deformation then combining (18) with the procedure from [Po03] of patching up intertwiners, one can find a non-zero partial isometry w ∈ ˜M such that θ1 (u)w = wu, for all u ∈ U (Q), which proves (1).

Some $OE$ and $W^*$-rigidity results for actions by wreath product groups

The main difference at the technical level is that instead of working with the malleable deformation for actions of free groups we will work with the deformation described in the first section.

Some $OE$ and $W^*$-rigidity results for actions by wreath product groups

***

Synonyms

Related forms

ductility

Reverse dictionary

aluminium, Ancony, atomic number 28, atomic number 29, atomic number 30, atomic number 48, atomic number 50, atomic number 79, atomic number 81, atomic number 82, Au, Bar-iron, bear, beat, brass, cadmium, calcium, Case-harden, Cd, Cementation, cerium, copper, Cu, Davyum, Decarbonized iron, Decarburization, finery, fix, forge, gallium, German silver, gold, Hammerable, Immalleable, indium, ingot, lanthanum, Lavœsium, lead, lump, magnesium, malleability, Malleable iron, Malleable iron castings, Malleableize, Malleableness, metal, metalworker, mild steel, Mitis casting, Mitis metal, Ni, nickel, palladium, paste, Pb, plasticity, platinum, pulverize, refine, rivet, Run steel, Saggar, Semi-metal, Semimetal, Sequacious, silver, Smith, Sn, soft, spin, strontium, thallium, tin, Tl, tombac, tungsten, unmalleable, uranium, wrought iron, Wrought-iron, zinc, Zn

Typos

nalleable, jalleable, kalleable, mqlleable, mwlleable, mslleable, mzlleable, makleable, maoleable, mapleable, malkeable, maloeable, malpeable, mallwable, mallsable, malldable, mallrable, malleqble, mallewble, mallesble, mallezble, malleavle, malleagle, malleahle, malleanle, malleabke, malleaboe, malleabpe, malleablw, malleabls, malleabld, malleablr

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