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Important Essay Topics For Class 12



UPSC Civil Service Exams 2018 -  20 Important Essay Topics

UPSC through its essay paper, consisting of eight topics divided  in two parts with maximum marks  being 250, and time duration of 3 hours, checks the coherence in the writing of the candidate, the construct of ideas in his/her mind and the way one can systematically put them on paper. The topics range from contemporary social issues to ethical-philosophical enquiries. A list of some of the very important topics for essays for this year has been prepared for you guys:


20 Important Essay Topics for UPSC Civil Services Exam 2018


1- Judiciary  and its working

New points to be added:
The master of the roaster controversy , issue of selection of judges through collegium system, the difference  of opinions between the Chief Justice and the senior supreme court judges.
Previously asked questions:
Judicial activism and Indian democracy. -2004
We may brave human laws but cannot resist natural laws. -2017


2- Water disputes between States.

New points to be added:
Cauvery Water Dispute and the Satluj Yamuna Link Canal case, Model/ Mandovi/Mahadayi river in Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra. The Inter-State River Water Disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2017 was introduced in Lok Sabha with the provision the tribunal's decision on a dispute within a period of three years. This period is extendable by a maximum of two years.
Previously  asked questions:
Cooperative federalism : Myth or reality. -2016
Water resources should be under the control of the central government. -2004


3- Modi’s agricultural schemes in the era of rampant farmer suicide

New points to be added:
Increased MSP by 1.5 times, Loan waivers, fiscal affects of such schemes,if the farmers are really benefited  or not, Atal Bhujal Yojana scheme, groundwater will be conserved efficiently and it will provide adequate amount of water for the use of agricultural purpose.
Previously asked questions:
How far has democracy in India delivered the goods? -2003
Food security for sustainable national development -2005


4- Apolitical Education

New points to be added:
Proximity of politics has degraded the education system, the alleged saffronisation of curriculum, autonomy of our educational institutions or have they become tools to disburse political patronage.
Previously asked questions:
Literacy is growing very fast, but there is no corresponding growth in education. -1996
Is an egalitarian society possible by educating the masses? -2008


5- The importance of higher education

New points to be added:
Centres of higher education and their issues: universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, conservatories, institutes of technology. Significance of higher education available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, and other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications.
Previously asked questions:
Privatization of higher education in India. -2002
Credit – based higher education system – status , opportunities and challenges -2011


6- Skilling the youth of India

New points to be added:
Schemes: Kaushal Vikas Yojana, Skill India, StandUp India; acquire the market-relevant skills , Public-private partnerships in preparing the curriculum for training packages, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Skills Fund, National Policy on Skill Development.
Previously asked questions:
Are the standardized tests good measure of academic ability or progress? -2014
Irrelevance of the classroom. -2001


7- Environment  vs Growth

New points to be added:
Weakening of the ancient symbiotic relationship between society and the environment on account of development and population growth, introducing greater scientific rigour in environment impact assessment of projects, lack of policy enthusiasm towards environment.
Previously asked questions:
Ecological considerations need not hamper development. -1993
Protection of ecology and environment is essential for sustained economic development. -2006


8- Why is administration insensitive about the plight of slum dwellers

New points to be added:
Third of India’s slum dwellers live in unrecognised slums, over representation of Scheduled Castes (SC) in slums, with 1 out of every five slums residents belonging to SC, compared to just over one out of 10 for urban India as a whole, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu and Bihar–had 51% of India’s slum households.
Previously asked questions:
Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence. -1993
The focus of health care is increasingly getting skewed towards the ‘haves’ of our society. -2009


9- India's role in changing global world order

New points to be added:
Demographic dividend, technological  revolution, increased FDI, Ease of doing business, position as against China, New alignments eg. Quad, BIMSTEC etc.
Previously asked questions:
The implications of globalization for India. -2000
Preparedness of our society for India’s global leadership role. -2010


10- Foreign Policy of Modi era

New points to be added:
Act East policy, improving ties with India's immediate neighbours in the neighbourhood first policy, development of a dedicated SAARC satellite, , Indian Ocean outreach, Project Mausam, Fast track diplomacy, Para diplomacy, Link West policy, Friendly- Israel policy.
Previously asked questions:
The global order: political and economic -1993
India’s role in promoting ASEAN cooperation. -2004


11- National  health  protection  scheme

New points to be added:
Provisions, Universal Health, funding provisions, executional hierarchy, Populism or Welfare?.
Previously asked questions:
The focus of health care is increasingly getting skewed towards the ‘haves’ of our society. -2009


12- Universal Basic Income vs Subsidy

New points to be added:
Is it a simple antidote to poverty? , demolish complex welfare bureaucracies while meeting some social transfer obligations ,amount to about 5% of GDP, mobilising public opinion and activate social movements, UBI is funded by taxes and withheld current subsidies to the rich, The tax-GDP ratio in India.
Previously asked questions:
Economic growth without distributive justice is bound to breed violence. -1993


13- Nationalism debate

New points to be added:
Effect of globalisation, possible substitutes such as global capitalism, socialist internationalism and UN multilateralism.The major challenges are coping with new problems arising within their territories and those which affect the very survival of mankind, sub-nationalisn, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, which significantly abridged the space for macroeconomic policymaking by nation states.
Previously asked questions:
Globalization would finish small-scale industries in India. -2006
Multinational corporations – saviours or saboteurs -1994


14- Indian Model of Secularism

New points to be added:
The lack of secularisation of society, groups gravitate to their own communities, politicisation  of religion, Triple Talaq, Universal Civil Code, personal laws etc.
Previously asked questions:
Spirituality and scientific temper. -2003
Science and Mysticism : Are they compatible ?-2012


15- Feminisation of agriculture

New points to be added:
Male out migration from rural areas, decreasing women's opportunities in agricultural productivity, and lower rural pay due to skill exclusions, dangerous to food security, social subsidies on education and health were removed, women became responsible for supplementing the increased cost.
Previously asked questions:
If development is not engendered, it is endangered. -2016
Farming has lost the ability to be a source of subsistence for majority of farmers in India. -2017
Whither women’s emancipation? -2004


16- Digitalisation  Drive

New points to be added:
the Digital India Land Record Modernisation Program (DILRMP),EShakti or Digitisation of SHGs, UPI, BHIM, AADHAR linkages, aim of connecting entire India digitally in the span of 4 years, Universal Access to Mobile Connectivity,  National Rural Internet Mission, E-kranti.
Previously asked questions:
Increasing computerization would lead to the creation of a dehumanized society. -2006
Computer: the harbinger of silent revolution. -1993


17- India’s standing in BRICS countries.

New points to be added:
Utility of the organization for India’s strategic and economic interests, membership yields greater opportunity than risk, BRICS Development Bank, “anti-Western” sentiment, struggles of other BRICS members, “China factor”.


18- Pollution Crisis in urban areas

New points to be added:
Burning of farm residue, transportation scheme, better management of resources, loss to national income, international reputation, threat of diseases, WHO reports, Ranking of Indian cities.
Previously asked questions:
Urbanization is a blessing in disguise. -1997
Urbanisation and its hazards -2008


19- Cultural Transformation in 21st century

New points to be added:
Institutionalization of science in society, adaptive changes in religious values and beliefs, process of social restructuration, emergence of new classes, decline of traditional cultural institutions, social mobility, migration, occupational diversification.
Previously asked questions:
Modernism and our traditional socio-ethical values. -2000
The composite culture of India. -1998
The Indian society at the crossroads. -1994
From traditional Indian philanthropy to the gates-buffet model-a natural progression or a paradigm shift? -2010


20- Artificial intelligence

New points to be added:
Narrow and general artificial  intelligence, recursive self-improvement, triggering an intelligence explosion leaving human intellect far behind, risks associated,  legal and safety concerns, misaligned  goals.
Previously asked questions:
Technology cannot replace manpower. -2015
Science and technology is the panacea for the growth and security of the nation-2013
These were some of the 'hot topics' that were in highlight  for some reason or the other throughout  the year. However exhaustive  this list may be, but UPSC has a tact of asking the same topic in a way that no one could imagine. Hence, candidates  are suggested to practice  as many mocks/tests as possible because with practice  comes precision.

Happy preparation, guys!


Author: Anushka Mishra

(C) SuccessCDs.net

Essay writing is an important part of the XAT Exam especially because it is conducted along with the main exam. The XAT 2018 exam is scheduled to take place on 7th January 2018 and with 1 months in hand to prepare for the exam, shortlisting important topics for essay writing can be tough. In Paper 2, topics related to General Knowledge and Essay Writing are asked to test your writing ability along with speed and accuracy. In order to save your time from the last minute hassles of selecting the important topics for the XAT exam, we have compiled a list of top 25 Essay topics for XAT 2018. Remember that Paper 2 comprises of 25 marks and needs to be attempted in 35 minutes. The 25 marks alloted to section can help you score a high percentile among the competitors aspiring to get a seat in XLRI.

Take a look at all the topics are categorized in 5 sections so that you can cover them conveniently. Most essay writing topics are from the current happenings that occured in the year 2017:


1. ISRO MOM Mission: Our low-cost Mars Orbiter Mission completes three years in its Martian orbit. The good news arrived when India on 24 September 2014 successfully placed the Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft in the orbit around the red planet. The government had in November last said the space organisation was seeking scientific proposals for Mars Orbiter Mission-2 to expand inter-planetary research. As this was one of the very important milestones achieved by India in the field of science and tech, you can expect this topic in the upcoming XAT Essay.

2. Right to Privacy: Supreme Court (SC) recent passed a ruling stating that ‘privacy’ is a fundamental right because it is intrinsic to the right to life. The bench said that ‘Right to Privacy is an integral part of Right to Life and Personal Liberty guaranteed in Article 21 of the Constitution.’ This ruling came to being after Centre's move to make Aadhaar mandatory for availing the benefits of various social welfare schemes. As per the nine bench of judges “any law which is made to restrict this fundamental right will have to be examined on the touchstone of Article 21 which means that the court will have to see if that law imposes reasonable restrictions on your right to privacy or not."

3. Triple Talaq: Both the Koran and the Hadith spell out the rights of Muslim women. They also clearly lay down the procedure for talaq, a lengthy one which carries enough scope for reconciliation before a complete termination of marriage. As per the recent judgment the court said that until the government formulates a law regarding triple talaq, there would be an injunction against husbands pronouncing triple talaq on their wives.

4. Cow Slaughter Ban: Article 48 of the Constitution of India mandates the state to prohibit the slaughter of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle. On 26 May 2017, the Ministry of Environment of Indian Central Government led by Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) imposed a ban on the sale of cows and buffaloes for slaughter at animal markets across India. Read about its impact on the businesses of people dealing in dairy products.

5. Clean India Movement: Union Minister of Culture Mahesh Sharma launched the Swachh Bharat App with an aim to involve people actively to become part of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Movement) in National Museum, Delhi. Once the App is installed and opened, it will ask the user to take photograph of the garbage and write the comment and just submit.

6. Concept of New India: India is the third largest economy with a robust, fast growing market for goods and services. New India is one concept that comprehensively caters to all the recent changes that have somersaulted the otherwise smooth growth of all the sectors of economy. While preparing for these topics do not miss out on including the concepts of Inclusive India, Digital India, Investor-friendly India, Skill India, Transforming India and many more.

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7. GST Reforms and impact on Indian Economy: Goods and Services Tax (GST), the biggest reform in India’s indirect tax structure that was initiated to streamline the complex tax structure of Indian economy has lately forced many companies to restructure their operations. There are several aspects which still remains untouched from the purview of GST such as whether gifts and perquisites provided free of charge by an employer to an employee can be subjected to GST. Hopefully, the GST regime is able to revive the economic growth. So all the XAT aspirants, be prepared to write an essay on the pros and cons of GST implementation in Indian economy.

8. Indian Economic Slowdown: India’s GDP growth slumped to a three-year low of 5.7 percent in the first quarter of the current fiscal year. GST regime that was planned to boost the pace of economic growth is at present roadblocks to various stakeholders. For a government that had promised to turn around the economy through decisive governance, this must serve as a wake-up call. For the XAT Essay, be prepared to answer how can growth be revived or what are the reasons for the current slowdown in the economy.

9. Bad bank and NPA Issue: India’s banking system is passing through a critical phase. At present, Rs 10 lakh crore worth of stressed assets, loan growth is stuttering at near six decades-low levels and lending rates are still stubbornly high. Thus, finance ministry and Reserve Bank of India are trying their best to salvage banks from the menace of NPAs. To bring an end to all these problems, a proposal has been forwarded to set up a “bad bank” that will absorb all the bad loans of commercial banks and cleanse the banking system. However, NITI Aayog vice chairman Arvind Panagariya is averse to the idea. The current essay will check your knowledge base upon the pros and cons of setting up the bad bank for the Indian banking system. 

10. One Belt, One Road Summit: The One Belt, One Road (OBOR) Summit or Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) concluded on 15 May 2017 in Beijing, China. 68 countries and international organisations have signed belt and road agreements with China. India’s concern is China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), which passes through Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir (PoK).

11. Demonitisation and its Impact on Indian Economy: On 8 November 2016, Government of India enacted the policy of demonetising INR 500 and INR 1000 rupee currency notes. While preparing for the purpose of XAT essay writing, focus on the fact that which sectors of Indian economy are the worst hit ones and which ones have outshined. Also read about the pros and cons of this policy in both long and short run. Find out more about the case here.


12. Cashless Economy: Cashless India or an economy with lower cash transactions seems unreal considering the older picture of Indian payment system. But, the current scenario is deviating Indian economy towards a cashless future! Non-cash transactions with the mediums such as Banking cards, USSD, AEPS, UPI, Mobile Wallets, Banks Pre-Paid Cards, Point of Sale, Internet Banking, Mobile Banking, Micro ATM’s have resulted in forcing us to go cashless. In the wake of this issue, read and find out all the government schemes that motivates an individual to go for cashless transactions.

13. Launch of Google Tez: Finally Google has also entered the Indian landscape of making digital payments with the launch of its mobile wallet app. In fact Tez also offers a B2B feature called ‘Tez for Business’, which allows merchants to get their business on Tez app. With existing 20 leading payment app brands such as BHIM, Paytm, Freecharge etc. in India, do you think Tez will be able to capture the Indian market?

14. Flipkart and Snapdeal merger: The long standing deal between the two e-tailers is in the news for various reasons. The Japanese investor, SoftBank has had a critical role to play with its 900 million investments in Snapdeal, marking its foothold in India. On the other hand, a completed merger between these two giants will give rise to one of the largest e-commerce start-ups in the country. So do you think that in the era of consolidation, arch rivals Flipkart and Amazon can change the scenario of e-commerce industry of India.

15. Indian Telecome Industry and Reliance Jio: Reliance Jio’s entry has changed the landscape of the Indian telecom industry drastically. Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) announced the launch of its 4G LTE feature phone called ‘Jio Phone’. With the advent of the revolution brought by Jio, do you think the internet will be accessible to every Indian? Do you also think that Reliance Jio will force other telecom players to go for market consolidation to tap the customer base?

16. Blue Whale Game and social media’s impact on younger generation: The Blue Whale Game aims to push vulnerable youngsters into taking their own lives. But how this game became popular over night? Did technology and individualism take its toll on the younger generation of India as well? The vicious viral game has spread online via social media accounts. Should parents become more vigilant towards the activities in which their kids are getting involved? Get ready to answer all these aspects if in case you get this topic in the XAT Essay.


17. Asia-Africa Growth Corridor: Asia-Africa Growth Corridor or AAGC is an economic cooperation agreement between the governments of India and Japan. When recently Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s arrived India for an annual summit, launch of Asia-Africa Growth Corridor (AAGC) was seen as an an alternative to the One-Belt-One-Road (OBOR) initiative of China. Trade Facilitation is a major component of AAGC Framework. When preparing for the XAT Essay, touch upon the strategic importance of AAGC from trade point of view for Indian economy.

18. Kulbhushan Jadhav case on Jamaat-i-Islami: The International Court of Justice's (ICJ) stayed hanging of former Indian Navy officer Kulbhushan Jadhav, who faced death sentence in Pakistan. India took the matter to the ICJ, citing that it had been repeatedly denied consular access to Jadhav in violation of the provisions of the Vienna Convention. Indian was in the interest of saving the life of an Indian citizen, who is in “illegal detention” and whose “life is under threat”. When preparing for the XAT Essay, keep a complete check on the information as to what is Vienna Convention and will India be able to give sufficient arguments in facour of Jadhav to save him?

19. Paris Climate Agreement: Paris Agreement is an international agreement to combat climate change. 32-page Paris agreement with 29 articles is widely recognized as a historic deal to stop global warming. In the contemporary context this topic holds relevance because of the most powerful economies of the world i.e. ‘USA’ will not renegotiate the Paris Accord, but they (will) try to review the terms on which they could be engaged under this agreement.

20. Rohingyas: The Myanmar Government says that Rohingya people are not Burmese citizens – but the Rohingya have been living in Myanmar for generations. Today, they are a people with no home or citizenship. At present, India supported the discussion in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) on the 'Responsibility to Protect' and the prevention of genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against Rohingyas

21. Cyber Security in Indian IT: After the Ransomware attack, cyber security of Indian IT sector has become a big question. Most of the ransomware was spread hidden within Word documents, PDFs and other files normally sent via email. It is also being called WanaCrypt0r 2.0, Wanna Decryptor 2.0, WCry 2, WannaCry 2 and Wanna Decryptor 2. WannaCry is asking for $300 worth of Bitcoin to unlock the contents of the computers.

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22. FIFA U-17 World Cup:  Although it is the first time that India got the golden opportunity to host the major event in the nation, but the big question is that is our infrastructure sound enough to organize the event successfully?

23. The Pitch debate: The state of pitches to be laid out in the Test series against New Zealand has thrown up interesting reactions from Indian cricketers. India had produced spin tracks against South Africa last year, and even won a Test against South Africa. With such a spinner friendly pitch and spinners, we indeed have an edge in the match. So get ready to answer whether there should be rules and regulations set against this aspect as well?

24. Women’s World cup: India women’s cricket proved their mettle with the marvelous performance on the pitch and stood second worldwide. Find out the facts that have positioned Indian to another level when women cricket comes into picture.

25. Davis Cup controversy: Considering the role of Tennis Association in the Davis cup, every year there is some or other form of controversy that spoils the sportsmanship spirit of the sport. This year as well one controversy made its way amidst the game. Every player has the right to choose his partner for the doubles match. In the last match when Rohan Bopanna chose to play with Mahesh Bhupathi, his decision was not accepted by the association. Rather, Leander Paes was instead given the final call by association to play the match with Rohan Bopanna. Taking a look at this situation, be prepared to answer the role of association in the match, should they interfere with the privileges that rest with the players?

The above listed Top 25 Essay topics for XAT 2018 will ease your efforts to scout for important topics. All the topics are relevant for the Paper 2 and can be asked in any form. So be prepared to know everything about the landmark events and score well in the GK section of XAT 2018.

Best of Luck for XAT 2018

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