1 Mikakasa

1848 Revolutions Essay

The German revolution of 1848

The dream of a unified Germany existed long before the First World War. Prior to 1848, Germany was not only fragmented but retained much of the feudal system. According to Herbert Germany was a land of many principalities, both large and small, governed by absolute monarchs; it seethed with territorial clashes and conflicting interests. However, the German revolution of 1848/49 paved the way for Germany’s unification and remains a pivotal moment in the country’s history.

A strong, albeit not unified, movement of liberal opposition started forming in the early 19th century. Though of diverse political philosophies, all pursued such basic rights as a trial by jury, freedom of expression, as well as the amalgamation of Germany into a singular nation-state. Political and social tensions exacerbated in 1847 as economic disasters, including a disastrous harvest that sparkled food riots, extended throughout Europe; the number of demonstrators and peasants' uprisings increased. Finally, an insurrection in Paris in March 1848 sparked analogous armed uprisings in Berlin and Frankfurt; these two cities were to become the centers of the revolution.

The revolutionary movement in Germany set up base in Frankfurt where on May 19th, 1987 they convened and officially opened the National Assembly at St. Paul's Cathedral. The Assembly had two main tasks: to create a centralized form of government and to come up with a national constitution. It was also tasked with crafting a provisional Imperial government. However, this newly created government faced a myriad of problems. Not only did its composition reflect the complications of relations between Germany as a unified nation and the individual states, principally Austria and Prussia, but it also lacked a standing army and a fully-fledged civil service.

Friedrich posits that it is due to these problems that a group of influential German monarchs declined to swear their troops allegiance to the Imperial Administrator. Consequently, chaos continued into 1849. A big number of liberal delegates abandoned the Assembly, and a few months later it was forcibly disbanded by Württemberg’s military forces. For all purposes and intents, the German revolution of 1848/49 ended.

The German revolution was imperfect and short-lived; nonetheless it was not unproductive. On the contrary: the principles that inspired the revolutionaries and the assembly they established directly led to the unification of Germany in1988, the constitution of the Weimar Nation in1919, and to the Common Law of the post-Second World War Republic of Germany. The political alliances and groupings that materialized during this period, however unsuccessful, may be regarded as precursors to the political organization and parties of modern-day Germany. All in all, the revolution remains a pivotal moment in German history.

The European Revolutions Of 1848 Essay

The revolutions of 1848 were widespread and affected about 50 countries in Europe, considering the previously separate lands of Germany and Italy. These revolutions were extremely violent and costly. In terms of lives, tens of thousands were lost during battles with several thousand more being lost in executions. Over 100,000 individuals were jailed or exiled as well. While these individual countries had significant nationalistic grievances, such as anti-Austrian attitudes in Italy, anti-Russian and anti-Turkish opinions in Rumania, anti-Habsburg in Prague and Budapest, German patriotism divided German as did Polish patriotism in Poland; it was the political and economic struggle that were the prevailing catalysts for the revolutionary uprisings.
There was widespread economic crisis in the European continent in the mid 19th century. Agricultural failures from 1845-1847 which resulted in increased food prices impeded the people’s ability to buy food. The people in Berlin were so angered over the cost of food that they rioted for four days. A third of the German population was on government relief by 1847, resulting in the number of Germans leaving for the United States in search of farmland to increase dramatically. In Prussian Silesia and Austrian Galicia over a quarter of a million people died as a result of starvation.
Anger over the ancient regime of government and its political tyranny was viewed as the single most important cause of the numerous revolutions. Heightened political awareness due to the invention and extensive use of the printing press was instrumental in fostering political awareness of new ideas such as liberalism, nationalism and socialism. Additionally, many of the countries were aware of the successful national unity of both France and the United States, and they wanted that same unity and democracy for their own countries.
In the 1840’s liberalism meant restrictions on the church and the states power, agreement of the governed, a republican government (that is a government where all people are considered to be equals regardless of social or economic status), and freedom of the press. Nationalism was viewed as a means of uniting people by a mix of common languages, cultural and/or religious beliefs, a common history and direct geographic proximity. Socialism had no clear definition and meant different things to different people, but in general referred to more power for the worker. Socialism of the 1840’s was based on worker ownership of the process of production.
The February Revolution, desiring a more libel reform of government in France, was the spark that set a blaze of revolutions in Western and Central Europe. Rather than attempt to crush the rebellion, King Louis-Philippe relinquished his crown to his nine-year old grandson leaving the Chamber of Deputies in power. The Chamber of Deputies then created a government of mostly moderates with a few radical and declared it the Second Republic. In May,...

Loading: Checking Spelling

0%

Read more

Reasons for the failure of 1848- 1849 revolutions in Italy

594 words - 2 pages The revolutionaries in Italy had longstanding grievances, some were nationalists and some were liberals. Despite all having different ideas and aims they all resoundingly agreed that Italy needed change. The hopes of the various revolutionary groups had been raised by the election of Pope Pius and Charles Albert the King of Piedmont Sardinia. However, their hopes and resulting revolutions were crushed due to many concerning factors. A crushing...

Why did the revolutions of 1848 achieve so little in Germany?

692 words - 3 pages The German Revolutions where sparked off by the overthrowing of the French King Louis-Philippe. The news spread and sparked off revolutions in many small southwestern German states that gradually spread northwards. These revolutions received help with information from...

Did the revolutions of 1848 share any common principles or aims?

912 words - 4 pages In each country in 1848 there were disturbances in peace. All had their social, economical and political problems, even though they different from country to country. The aims of the revolutions are different for the different classes, history and causes to revolution.In France the aim for peasants and working class was to create job opportunities, which would allow them to prosper better and in case of bad harvest and higher prices...

Were the Revolution in the European countries in 1848 Important?

1188 words - 5 pages -- IntroductionMany European countries revolted in 1848, because people desired for political changes. Either independence of their country or freedom of individuals became important at that time. Instead of being ruled by the higher levels, nationalism or liberalism became focused. The desire of nationalism or liberalism caused the revolutions in 1848.-- Why were there so many revolutions?Many revolutions occurred in...

Explores "age of revolutions" (1789-1848). Describes revolutions in France, Haiti, and Latin America. Thesis: revolutions are similar in leaders, dealings church, basic cycle.

1996 words - 8 pages The period between 1789 and 1848 is often called the Age of Revolutions, as it was a time of uprising, chaos, and the demand for freedom and independence. During this time, revolutions were occurring simultaneously throughout France, Haiti, and Latin America, each one inadvertently inspiring others. While these revolutions were different in many ways, they...

Failure of the Italian Revolutions

779 words - 3 pages The failure of the Italian revolutions cannot be attributed to one reason as there are a plethora of reasons which could be cited as a main cause. The main reasons which could be argued as the most important reasons for the failure of the Italian revolts are the lack of organisation within revolutionary groups, the Austrian army’s strength, the political and military inexperience of those in power, the Pope’s abandonment of the revolution, the...

The Three Types of Revolutions

599 words - 2 pages There are three kinds of massive revolutions. They are Agricultural, Industrial, and Information Revolution. A revolution is a change that occurs rapidly and massively, leading to a fundamental transformation of society. They could be political, economic, or social revolution, but in any case they involve a change that transforms society to its...

The Break Out of the Revolution in Germany in 1848

1390 words - 6 pages The Break Out of the Revolution in Germany in 1848 There were a numerous external and internal factors behind the 1848 revolutions in Germany. Externally, changes in the international climate and political upheaval in Austria provided German nationalists with an avenue of opportunity to cease power. Internally, the growth of German nationalism and liberalism coupled with the acute financial and food crisis of 1847...

Comparison of the American and French Revolutions

1015 words - 4 pages Comparison of the American and French Revolutions The American and French revolutions both compare and contrast in their origins and outcomes; both revolutions began due to the common peoples need to obtain independence and liberty from an oppressive government. The American Revolution was triggered by the American colonists need for financial independence from the overpowering nation of Great Britain, while the French revolution was a...

Why Did the Revolutions of 1917 Happen?

1558 words - 6 pages The Russian Revolutions in 1917 was the culmination of a long history of social unrest and repression. From the reign of Peter the Great, the tsardom disintegrated into an autocratic bureaucracy that suppressed the people's rights and liberties and had no regard for the improvement of the average citizen's life. The cause of the Revolution, thus, can be...

The Revolution of 1848 and Karl Marx's The Communist Manifesto

1612 words - 6 pages The Revolution of 1848 and Karl Marx's The Communist Manifesto There were two major things that happened in Europe in 1848. One of those things was the Revolution of 1848. The other was the publication of the Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx. The Revolution of 1848, and the Communist Manifesto tie into each other very well. The Revolution was calling for a change in society, and so was Marx through the writing of his...

Leave a Comment

(0 Comments)

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *